Cameras, projectors and other motion picture equipment highlighted in the texts are listed here, with the inventor or engineer and/or promoter associated with the machine given in parentheses. Click on the images for higher resolution copies.

Biograph (Herman Casler)

The Biograph projector for large format 68/70 mm film, 1896. Intermittent film movement was by friction rollers. Hendricks Collection/Smithsonian Institution


Biographe (Georges Demen˙)

Originally known as the Chronophotographe, Demen˙'s camera was commercially available from Gaumont from 1896, as the Biographe, using unperforated 60 mm film.


Biokam (Alfred Darling-Alfred Wrench)

Complete system (motion camera, projector/printer; and stills camera) for 17.5 mm centre-perforated film, intended for the amateur and semi-professional market in 1899


Bioscope (Charles Urban)

Warwick Bioscope, c1900. Designed in the USA for Urban by Walter Isaacs in 1897 and sold in Britain, this projector used a beater movement


Bioskop (Max Skladanowsky)

Projector that used two loops of 54 mm film, with images projected alternately, 1895


Birtac (Birt Acres)

The Birtac narrow gauge camera / printer / projector for film, set up for projection


Chronophotographe (Georges DemenÿLéon Gaumont)

Beater-movement projector for 58 mm / 60 mm film


Cieroscope (Richard Appleton)

Appleton's Cieroscope, as advertised in 1899


Cinematograph (Robert Royou Beard)

R.R. Beard cinematograph projector with Maltese cross mechanism, c1897. Operated by Will Day, c1930.


Cinematograph (Cecil Wray)

35 mm film projection mechanism with claw movement. A version was sold from 1896 by Riley


Cinematograph (Alfred Wrench)

Wrench cinematograph projector, 1898 model. The Wrench featured an unusual rachet and pawl mechanism, and could also show lantern slides


Cinématographe (Auguste Lumičre-Louis Lumičre)

1. Lumière Cinématographe in use as a camera c.1896 (with unusual film take-up chamber)


Cinématographe (Auguste Lumičre-Louis Lumičre)

2. Lumière Cinématographe set up for projection, 1895-96


Cinéorama (Raoul Grimoin-Sanson)

Ten synchronised cameras arranged in a circle filmed a balloon ascent from the balloon basket. The intention was that ten projectors would recreate the experience on a circular screen


Electrical Schnellseher (Ottomar Anschütz)

Coin-operated arcade version, with images on celluloid arranged around a disc, c1892


Electrotachyscope (Ottomar Anschütz)

Early version, with glass positives arranged around a disc, 1887


Electrotachyscope (projecting) (Ottomar Anschütz)

Drawing showing two large picture discs, each with twelve images, projected alternately, 1894


Filoscope (Henry Short)

A flip-book, patented in 1898, encased in a metal cover and operated by applying thumb pressure on a lever. Featuring lithographed images, mostly from films made by R.W. Paul


Kammatograph (Leo Kamm)

Camera / projector with miniature images arranged in a spiral on a glass disc, patented 1898


Kineoptoscope (Riley Brothers)

35 mm film projector with claw movement, based on Wray's design. Free-standing model, 1897


Kinesigraph (Wordsworth Donisthorpe)

Camera for unperforated film, unusual shuttle movement, patented with W.C. Crofts 1889


Kinetic Camera (Birt Acres)

Birt Acres' Kinetic Camera for 35mm perforated film, 1895


Kinetograph (George De Bedts)

De Bedts Kinetograph, 1896. A combined camera-projector mechanism. Illustrated in projection mode, with water tank cooler between light source and film


Kinetograph (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)

Camera (the first to use perforated film stock) for producing subjects for the Kinetoscope peepshow machine. Developed over several years, and shotting commercially-used films from 1893


Kinetophone (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)

Kinetoscope with Phonograph cylinder audio player built in and earphones, 1895


Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)

1. Kinetoscope - interior view. The 35 mm film travelled continuously over a bank of rollers, each picture being viewed briefly through a narrow slot in the revolving shutter


Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)

2. Kinetoscope - exterior view. Electrically-driven peepshow machine for films produced with Kinetograph camera. 1894


Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)

3. Peter Bacigalupi's Kinetoscope parlour, San Francisco, 1894 or 1895


Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)

4. Kinetoscope plan view, showing continuous film mechanism and single thin aperture in shutter


Kinora (Herman Casler-Louis Lumičre)

The first clockwork Kinora mechanism, as manufactured by Gaumont



Magniscope (Edward Amet)

Amet Magniscope 35mm film projector, 1896. A portable machine popular with travelling showmen. © American Museum of the Moving Image


Mutagraph (Herman Casler)

Mutagraph-Biograph camera for 68/70 mm film, c1897


Mutoscope (Herman Casler)

Hand-cranked viewer for exhibiting a reel of photographs printed from a motion picture film. Commercialised 1896


Panoptikon (Woodville Latham)

Primitive projector, in which the two-inch film moved continuously. The first to be used for commercial film shows in 1895. Later (as the Eidoloscope) an intermittent mechanism was added


Phantascope (J.A.A. Rudge)

Phantascope (or Biphantascope), 1870s. Seven slides were mounted in a carousel that travelled around the lantern body intermittently


Phantoscope (C. Francis Jenkins)

Beater movement version used in October 1895


Phonoscope (Georges Demen˙)

Phonoscope (Gaumont-Demen˙) - also known as the Bioscope - set up for projection, 1895


Photo-Rotoscope (W.C. Hughes)

Hughes Photo-Rotoscope projector, 1898, with beater movement


Praxinoscope (Émile Reynaud)

1877, version with crank handle


Projecting Kinetoscope (Thomas Edison)

Edison Projecting Kinetscope with spoolbank, 1897


Tachyscope (Ottomar Anschütz)

Drum version of the Anschütz Tachyscope (also known as the Schnellseher), 1890. Showed five sets of moving images simultaneously. Transparencies were continuously moving, each illuminated by a brief spark.


Thaumatographe (Oskar Messter)

Messter Thaumtographe camera for 35 mm film, 1896


Théâtre Optique (Émile Reynaud)

A theatrical projection version of Reynaud's Praxinoscope, using a band of painted characters superimposed on a background projected from a separate lantern. Patented 1888, in commercial use from 1892. Later, photographic images were used


Theatrograph (Robert Paul)

The Theatrograph no. 2, mark 1, as presented by Robert Paul to the Science Museum in 1913


Vitascope (Thomas Armat-Thomas Edison)

Vitascope 35 mm film projector, originally developed by Thomas Armat (with C. Francis Jenkins), and sold to Edison, 1896


Zoöpraxiscope (Eadweard Muybridge)

Muybridge's Zoöpraxiscope, 1879 (modified 1892/3). © 2004 Kingston Museum and Heritage Centre, Surrey